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Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 1, 27 - 44, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.31805/acjes.937166

Abstract

This study is a discourse analysis in the context of early childhood education. The main purpose of the study was to detect the preschool teacher’s questioning typologies in the classroom. To put it differently, discourse-cognition relations were plumbed in the context of learning and teaching in the period of early childhood. The participants were a preschool teacher and 15 students. As part of this study, the teacher’s questioning typologies during in-class discourses were determined. The subjects of the in-class discourses which were video recorded were specified beforehand. The data were analysed theory-based and data-tendency coding catalogues. The data which obtained by recorder were analysed analytically thorough specific coding catalogues (in seconds or minutes). Then the teacher’s questioning typologies were proportioned so as to make inter-implementation comparisons. The teacher applied to seven higher categories of questioning: “communicating”, “monitoring”, “evaluating”, “challenging”, “seeking for evidence”, observations-comparison- prompting to prediction”, “prompting to concluding/ inferencing”. It is determined that communicative questioning (%46,6) typology was used more than the other ones (“challenging” (%6,1, evaluating (%7,9) that required high cognitive demand. From this point of view, the teacher’s questioning in class was mostly lower-level (comprehension, remembering). It is aimed that the obtained evidence of teacher’s questioning will contribute significantly to the vocational education actions.

References

  • Atkinson, R., & Shiffrin, R. (1968). Chapter: Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. The psychology of learning and motivation(2), 89-195.
  • Bay, N., & Alisinanoğlu, F. (2012, Aralık). Okul Öncesi Eğitimi Öğretmenlerine Uygulanan Soru Sorma Becerisi Öğretim Programının Ögretmenlerin Sorularının Bilişsel Taksonomisine Etkisi. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 8(3), 80-93.
  • Baird, J., & Nortfield, J. (1992). Learning from the PEEL experience. Melbourne Australia: Monash University Printing.
  • Blatchford, I., & Mani, L. (2008). Would You Like to Tidy Up Now? An Analysis of Adult Questioning in the English FOundation Stage. Early Years, 28(1), 5-22.
  • Boyd, M., & Galda , L. (2011). Real talk in elemantary classroms: Effective oral language pactice. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Boyd, M., & Rubin, D. (2006). How Contingent Questioning Promotes Extended Student Talk: A Function of Display Questions. Journal of Literacy Research, 141-169.
  • Cadzen, C. (1988). Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning. Portsmouth: Heinemann.
  • Chapell, K., Craft, A., Burnard, P., & Cremin, T. (2008). Question-posing and question-responding: the heart of 'Possibility Thinking' in the early years. Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 28(3), 267-286.
  • Cheminais, R. (2008). Every Child Matters: A Practical Guide for Teaching Assistants. Routledge.
  • Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Sage.: Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Chin, C. (2006, Eylül). Classroom Interaction in Science: Teacher questioning and feedback to students’ responses. International Journal of Science Education, 28(11), 1315-1346.
  • Chin, C. (2007). Teacher questioning in science classrooms: Approaches that stimulate productive thinking. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(6), 815-843.
  • Chin, C., & Osborne, J. (2008). Students question: a potential resource for teaching and learning science. Studies in Science Education, 41(1), 1-39.
  • Christodoulou, A., & Osborne, J. (2014). The Science Classroom as a Site of Epistemic Talk: A Case Study of a Teacher's Attempts to Teach Science Based on Argument. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(10).
  • Cochran, S. (2005). Studying Teacher Education. Washington: American Educational Research Association.
  • Dantonio, C. (1990). How can we create thinkers? Questioning strategies that work for teachers. Bloomington IN: National Educational Service.
  • De Rivera , C., Girolametto, J., & Weitzman, E. (2005). Children’s Responses to Educators’ Questions in Day Care Play Groups. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14, 14-26.
  • Dorval, B., & Eckerman, C. (1984). “Developmental Trends in the Quality of Conversation Achieved by Small Groups of Acquainted Peers. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 49(206), 1-91.
  • Dovigo, F. (2016). Argumentation İn Preschool: A Common Ground For Collaborative Learning In Early Childhood. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24(6), 818-840.
  • Duschl, R. (2008). Science Education in Three-Part Harmony: Balancing Conceptual Epictemic, and Social Learning Goals. Review of Resarch in Education, 32(1), 268-291.
  • Fairbain, D. (1987). The art of questioning your students. The Clearing House, 61(1), 19-22.
  • Filippone, M. (1998). Questioning at the Elementary Level. Masters Theses, Kean University. ERIC Education Resources Information Center, (ED 417 431).
  • Gall, M. (1970). The Use of Questions in Teaching. Review of Educational Research, 40, 707-721.
  • Garvey, C. (1984). Children’s Talk. London: Collins.
  • Gee, J., & Green, J. (1998). Discourse Analysis, Learning, and Social Practice: A. Review of Research in Education, 23(1), 119-169.
  • Goodwin, M., & Kyratzis, A. (2007). Children Socializing Children: Practices for Negotiating the Social Order Among Peers. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 279-289.
  • Goodwin, S., Sharp, G., Cloutier, E., & Diamond , N. (1983). Clasroom Qıestioning. East Lansing, MI:National Center for Research on Teacher Learnin, ERIC Education Resources Information Center, (ED 285 497).
  • Grace, S., & Langhout, R. (2014, Mart). Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program. Springer Science Business Media, 703-724.
  • Harlen, W. (1999). Effective teaching of science: A review of research. Edinburgh. Scotland: Council for Reasearch in Education.
  • Haves, R., & Matusov, E. (2005). Designing for dialogue in place of teacher talk and student slience. Culture & Psychology, 11(3), 339-357.
  • Jadallah, M., Anderson , R., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Miller , B., Kim, I., Kuo, L., & Wu, X. (2011). Influence of a teacher’s scaffolding movesduring child-led small-group discussions. American Educational Re-search Journal, 48, 194-230.
  • Jegede, O., & Olajide, J. (1995). Wait‐time, classroom discourse, and the influence of sociocultural factors in science teaching. Science Education, 79(3), 233-249.
  • Johnston, J., Halocha, J., & Chater, M. (2007). Developing teaching skills in the primary school. America: Open University Press.
  • John-Steiner, V., & Mahn, H. (1996). Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: A Vygotskian frame work. Educational Psychology, 31, 91-206.
  • Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (1983). Power in staff development through research on training. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Lee, Y. (2007). Third Turn Position in Teacher Talk: Contingency and the Work of Teaching. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 1204-1230.
  • Lee, Y., Kinzie, M., & Whittaker, J. (2012). Impact of Online Support for Teachers' Open-Ended Questioning in Pre-K Science Activities. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 28(568-577).
  • Kawalkar, A., & Vijapurkar, J. (2013). Scaffolding Science Talk: The role of teachers' questions in the inquiry classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 35(12), 2004-2027.
  • Klein, E., Hammrich, P., Bloom, S., & Ragins , A. (2000). Language Development and Science İnquiry: The Head Start on Science and Communication Program. Early Chilhood and Practice, 2(2), 1-22.
  • MacNaughton, G., & Williams, G. (2004). Teaching young chıldren choices in teory and practice. Australia: Ligare Pty. Ltd.
  • Martin, A., & Hand, B. (2009). Factors affecting the implementation of argument in the elementary science classroom. A longitudinal case study. Research in Science Education, 39, 17-38.
  • Massey, S. L. (2004). Teacher–Child Conversation in the Preschool Classroom. Early Childhood Education Journal, 31(4), 227-231.
  • Massey, S., Pence, K., Justice L.M, & Bowles, R. (2008). Educators’ use of cognitively challenging questions in economically disadvantaged preschool classroom contexts. Early Education and Development, 19(2), 340-360.
  • Mcmahon, M. (2012). Policy Uncertainty and Household Savings. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 94(2), 517-531.
  • Mehan, H. (1979). Learning lessons. Social organization in the classroom. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Mercer, N. (2004). Sociocultural discourse analysis: analysing classroom talk as a social mode of thinking. Journal of Applied Linguistic, 1(2), 137-168.
  • Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education: Revised and Expanded from Case Study Research in Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Molinari, L., Mameli , C., & Gnisci , A. (2013). A sequential analysis of classroom discourse in Italian primary schools: the many faces of the IRF pattern. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 414-430.
  • Morgan, N., & Saxton, J. (1991). Teaching, Questioning and Learning. New York: Londra; New York: Routledge.
  • Morse, K., Rogers, V., Tinsley, D., & Davis, O. (1969). Studying the Cognitive Emphases of Teachers 'Classrom Questions'. Reseach In Review, 711-719.
  • Mortimer, F., & Buty, C. (2008, Ekim). Dialogic/Authoritative Discourse and Modelling in a High School Teaching Sequence on Optics. International Journal of Science Education, 30(12), 1635-1660.
  • Oliveira, A. (2010). Improving teacher questioning in science inquiry discussions through professional development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), 422-453.
  • Otto, P., & Schuck R.F. (1983). The effect of a teacher questioning strategy training program on teaching behavior, student achievement, and retention. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(6), 521-528.
  • Pimentel, D., & Mcneil, K. (2013). Conducting Talk in Secondary Science Classrooms: Investigating Instructional Moves and Teachers' Beliefs. Science Education, 97(3), 367-394.
  • Pontecorvo, C., & Sterponi, L. (2002). Learning to Argue and Reason Through Discourse in Educational Settings. Cultural-Historical Psychology, 19-29.
  • Sanders, N. (1966). Classroom Questions: What Kinds. New York: New York: Harper & Row.
  • Sands, L., Carr, M., & Lee, W. (2012). Question-asking and question-exploring. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 20(4), 553-564.
  • Savage, L. (1998). Eliciting critical thinking skills through questioning. Clearing House, 71(5), 291-293.
  • Sinclair, J., & Coulthard, R. (1975). Towards an Analysis of Discourse: The English used by Teachers and Pupils. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Sitko, M., & Slemon, A. (1982). Developing teachers' questioning skills: the efficacy of delayed feedback. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue Canadienne De L'education, 7(3), 109-121.
  • Soysal, Y. (2018). Determining the Mechanics of Classroom Discourse in Vygotskian Sense: Teacher Discursive Moves Reconsidered. Research in Science Education, 1-25.
  • Stevens, R. (1912). The question as a measure of efficiency in instruction: A critical study of classroom practice. New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Storey, S. (2004). Teacher Questioning to İmprove Early Chıldhood Reasoning. Doctor of Philosophy (Doctoral Thesis), Department of Teaching and Teacher Education in Arizona University.
  • Turner, P., & Durrett, M. (1975). Teacher Level of Questioning and Problem Solving in Young Chıldren. Washington: American Educational Research Association, ERIC Education Resources Information Center.
  • Philosophy (Doctoral Thesis), Department of Teaching and Teacher Education in Arizona University.
  • Tsung-Hui, T., & Wei-Ying, W. (2008). Preschool teacher-child verbal ınteractions in science teaching. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 12(2), 2-23.
  • Van Boven, L. (2005). Experientialism, Materialism, and the Pursuit of Happiness. Review of General Psychology, 9(2).
  • van Kleeck, A., Vander Woude, J., & Hammet, L. (2006). Fostering literal and inferential language skills in Head Start preschoolers with language impairment using scripted book-sharing discussions. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(1), 85-95.
  • van de Pol, J., Volman, M., Oort, F., & Beushuizen, J. (2015). The effects of scaffolding in the classroom: support contingency and student independent working time in relation to student achievement, task effort and appreciation of support. Instructional Science, 43(5).
  • van der Veen , C., Van Kruistum, C., & Micheals, S. (2015). Productive classroom dialogue as an activity of shared thinking and communicating: a Commentary on Marsal. Mind, Cultureand and Activity, 22(4), 320-325.
  • Van Zee, E., & Minstrell, J. (1997b). Using questioning to guide student thinking. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6, 229-271.
  • Vogler, J. (2005). Improve your verbal questioning. The Clearing House, 2, 98-103.
  • Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society; The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society; The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Vygotsky, L. (1987). Imagination and its development in childhood. The collected works of LS Vygotsky, 1, 339-350.
  • Wells, G. (1993). Reevaluating the IRF Sequence: A Proposal for the Articulation of Theories of Activity and Discourse for the Analysis of Teaching and Learning in the Classroom. Linguistics and Education, 5(1), 1-37.
  • Wells, G., & Arauz, R. (2006). Dialogue in the Classroom. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(3), 379-428.
  • Wilen, W. (1991). Questioning Skills, for Teachers. What Research Says to the Teacher. Third Edition. Washington: National Education Association.
  • Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). The Role of Tutoring in Problem Solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 89-100.
  • Wragg, E., & Brown, G. (2001). Questioning in the Primary School (Successful Teaching). London: Routledge Falmer.
  • Yolder, P., Davies, B., Bishop , K., & Munson , L. (1994). Effect of adult continuing wh-questions on conversational participation in children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 37-1, 193-203.
  • Zucker, T., Justice, L., Piasta, S., & Kaderavek, J. (2010). Preschool teachers’ literal and inferential questions and children's responses during whole-class shared reading. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(1), 65-83.

Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types

Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 1, 27 - 44, 30.06.2021
https://doi.org/10.31805/acjes.937166

Abstract

This study is a discourse analysis in the context of early childhood education. The main purpose of the study was to detect the preschool teacher’s questioning typologies in the classroom. To put it differently, discourse-cognition relations were plumbed in the context of learning and teaching in the period of early childhood. The participants were a preschool teacher and 15 students. As part of this study, the teacher’s questioning typologies during in-class discourses were determined. The subjects of the in-class discourses which were video recorded were specified beforehand. The data were analysed theory-based and data-tendency coding catalogues. The data which obtained by recorder were analysed analytically thorough specific coding catalogues (in seconds or minutes). Then the teacher’s questioning typologies were proportioned so as to make inter-implementation comparisons. The teacher applied to seven higher categories of questioning: “communicating”, “monitoring”, “evaluating”, “challenging”, “seeking for evidence”, observations-comparison- prompting to prediction”, “prompting to concluding/ inferencing”. It is determined that communicative questioning (%46,6) typology was used more than the other ones (“challenging” (%6,1, evaluating (%7,9) that required high cognitive demand. From this point of view, the teacher’s questioning in class was mostly lower-level (comprehension, remembering). It is aimed that the obtained evidence of teacher’s questioning will contribute significantly to the vocational education actions.

References

  • Atkinson, R., & Shiffrin, R. (1968). Chapter: Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. The psychology of learning and motivation(2), 89-195.
  • Bay, N., & Alisinanoğlu, F. (2012, Aralık). Okul Öncesi Eğitimi Öğretmenlerine Uygulanan Soru Sorma Becerisi Öğretim Programının Ögretmenlerin Sorularının Bilişsel Taksonomisine Etkisi. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 8(3), 80-93.
  • Baird, J., & Nortfield, J. (1992). Learning from the PEEL experience. Melbourne Australia: Monash University Printing.
  • Blatchford, I., & Mani, L. (2008). Would You Like to Tidy Up Now? An Analysis of Adult Questioning in the English FOundation Stage. Early Years, 28(1), 5-22.
  • Boyd, M., & Galda , L. (2011). Real talk in elemantary classroms: Effective oral language pactice. New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Boyd, M., & Rubin, D. (2006). How Contingent Questioning Promotes Extended Student Talk: A Function of Display Questions. Journal of Literacy Research, 141-169.
  • Cadzen, C. (1988). Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning. Portsmouth: Heinemann.
  • Chapell, K., Craft, A., Burnard, P., & Cremin, T. (2008). Question-posing and question-responding: the heart of 'Possibility Thinking' in the early years. Early Years: An International Journal of Research and Development, 28(3), 267-286.
  • Cheminais, R. (2008). Every Child Matters: A Practical Guide for Teaching Assistants. Routledge.
  • Creswell, J. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Sage.: Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • Chin, C. (2006, Eylül). Classroom Interaction in Science: Teacher questioning and feedback to students’ responses. International Journal of Science Education, 28(11), 1315-1346.
  • Chin, C. (2007). Teacher questioning in science classrooms: Approaches that stimulate productive thinking. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(6), 815-843.
  • Chin, C., & Osborne, J. (2008). Students question: a potential resource for teaching and learning science. Studies in Science Education, 41(1), 1-39.
  • Christodoulou, A., & Osborne, J. (2014). The Science Classroom as a Site of Epistemic Talk: A Case Study of a Teacher's Attempts to Teach Science Based on Argument. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(10).
  • Cochran, S. (2005). Studying Teacher Education. Washington: American Educational Research Association.
  • Dantonio, C. (1990). How can we create thinkers? Questioning strategies that work for teachers. Bloomington IN: National Educational Service.
  • De Rivera , C., Girolametto, J., & Weitzman, E. (2005). Children’s Responses to Educators’ Questions in Day Care Play Groups. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 14, 14-26.
  • Dorval, B., & Eckerman, C. (1984). “Developmental Trends in the Quality of Conversation Achieved by Small Groups of Acquainted Peers. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 49(206), 1-91.
  • Dovigo, F. (2016). Argumentation İn Preschool: A Common Ground For Collaborative Learning In Early Childhood. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 24(6), 818-840.
  • Duschl, R. (2008). Science Education in Three-Part Harmony: Balancing Conceptual Epictemic, and Social Learning Goals. Review of Resarch in Education, 32(1), 268-291.
  • Fairbain, D. (1987). The art of questioning your students. The Clearing House, 61(1), 19-22.
  • Filippone, M. (1998). Questioning at the Elementary Level. Masters Theses, Kean University. ERIC Education Resources Information Center, (ED 417 431).
  • Gall, M. (1970). The Use of Questions in Teaching. Review of Educational Research, 40, 707-721.
  • Garvey, C. (1984). Children’s Talk. London: Collins.
  • Gee, J., & Green, J. (1998). Discourse Analysis, Learning, and Social Practice: A. Review of Research in Education, 23(1), 119-169.
  • Goodwin, M., & Kyratzis, A. (2007). Children Socializing Children: Practices for Negotiating the Social Order Among Peers. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 279-289.
  • Goodwin, S., Sharp, G., Cloutier, E., & Diamond , N. (1983). Clasroom Qıestioning. East Lansing, MI:National Center for Research on Teacher Learnin, ERIC Education Resources Information Center, (ED 285 497).
  • Grace, S., & Langhout, R. (2014, Mart). Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program. Springer Science Business Media, 703-724.
  • Harlen, W. (1999). Effective teaching of science: A review of research. Edinburgh. Scotland: Council for Reasearch in Education.
  • Haves, R., & Matusov, E. (2005). Designing for dialogue in place of teacher talk and student slience. Culture & Psychology, 11(3), 339-357.
  • Jadallah, M., Anderson , R., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Miller , B., Kim, I., Kuo, L., & Wu, X. (2011). Influence of a teacher’s scaffolding movesduring child-led small-group discussions. American Educational Re-search Journal, 48, 194-230.
  • Jegede, O., & Olajide, J. (1995). Wait‐time, classroom discourse, and the influence of sociocultural factors in science teaching. Science Education, 79(3), 233-249.
  • Johnston, J., Halocha, J., & Chater, M. (2007). Developing teaching skills in the primary school. America: Open University Press.
  • John-Steiner, V., & Mahn, H. (1996). Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: A Vygotskian frame work. Educational Psychology, 31, 91-206.
  • Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (1983). Power in staff development through research on training. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Lee, Y. (2007). Third Turn Position in Teacher Talk: Contingency and the Work of Teaching. Journal of Pragmatics, 39, 1204-1230.
  • Lee, Y., Kinzie, M., & Whittaker, J. (2012). Impact of Online Support for Teachers' Open-Ended Questioning in Pre-K Science Activities. Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, 28(568-577).
  • Kawalkar, A., & Vijapurkar, J. (2013). Scaffolding Science Talk: The role of teachers' questions in the inquiry classroom. International Journal of Science Education, 35(12), 2004-2027.
  • Klein, E., Hammrich, P., Bloom, S., & Ragins , A. (2000). Language Development and Science İnquiry: The Head Start on Science and Communication Program. Early Chilhood and Practice, 2(2), 1-22.
  • MacNaughton, G., & Williams, G. (2004). Teaching young chıldren choices in teory and practice. Australia: Ligare Pty. Ltd.
  • Martin, A., & Hand, B. (2009). Factors affecting the implementation of argument in the elementary science classroom. A longitudinal case study. Research in Science Education, 39, 17-38.
  • Massey, S. L. (2004). Teacher–Child Conversation in the Preschool Classroom. Early Childhood Education Journal, 31(4), 227-231.
  • Massey, S., Pence, K., Justice L.M, & Bowles, R. (2008). Educators’ use of cognitively challenging questions in economically disadvantaged preschool classroom contexts. Early Education and Development, 19(2), 340-360.
  • Mcmahon, M. (2012). Policy Uncertainty and Household Savings. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 94(2), 517-531.
  • Mehan, H. (1979). Learning lessons. Social organization in the classroom. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Mercer, N. (2004). Sociocultural discourse analysis: analysing classroom talk as a social mode of thinking. Journal of Applied Linguistic, 1(2), 137-168.
  • Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education: Revised and Expanded from Case Study Research in Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Molinari, L., Mameli , C., & Gnisci , A. (2013). A sequential analysis of classroom discourse in Italian primary schools: the many faces of the IRF pattern. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 414-430.
  • Morgan, N., & Saxton, J. (1991). Teaching, Questioning and Learning. New York: Londra; New York: Routledge.
  • Morse, K., Rogers, V., Tinsley, D., & Davis, O. (1969). Studying the Cognitive Emphases of Teachers 'Classrom Questions'. Reseach In Review, 711-719.
  • Mortimer, F., & Buty, C. (2008, Ekim). Dialogic/Authoritative Discourse and Modelling in a High School Teaching Sequence on Optics. International Journal of Science Education, 30(12), 1635-1660.
  • Oliveira, A. (2010). Improving teacher questioning in science inquiry discussions through professional development. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), 422-453.
  • Otto, P., & Schuck R.F. (1983). The effect of a teacher questioning strategy training program on teaching behavior, student achievement, and retention. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(6), 521-528.
  • Pimentel, D., & Mcneil, K. (2013). Conducting Talk in Secondary Science Classrooms: Investigating Instructional Moves and Teachers' Beliefs. Science Education, 97(3), 367-394.
  • Pontecorvo, C., & Sterponi, L. (2002). Learning to Argue and Reason Through Discourse in Educational Settings. Cultural-Historical Psychology, 19-29.
  • Sanders, N. (1966). Classroom Questions: What Kinds. New York: New York: Harper & Row.
  • Sands, L., Carr, M., & Lee, W. (2012). Question-asking and question-exploring. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 20(4), 553-564.
  • Savage, L. (1998). Eliciting critical thinking skills through questioning. Clearing House, 71(5), 291-293.
  • Sinclair, J., & Coulthard, R. (1975). Towards an Analysis of Discourse: The English used by Teachers and Pupils. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Sitko, M., & Slemon, A. (1982). Developing teachers' questioning skills: the efficacy of delayed feedback. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue Canadienne De L'education, 7(3), 109-121.
  • Soysal, Y. (2018). Determining the Mechanics of Classroom Discourse in Vygotskian Sense: Teacher Discursive Moves Reconsidered. Research in Science Education, 1-25.
  • Stevens, R. (1912). The question as a measure of efficiency in instruction: A critical study of classroom practice. New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Storey, S. (2004). Teacher Questioning to İmprove Early Chıldhood Reasoning. Doctor of Philosophy (Doctoral Thesis), Department of Teaching and Teacher Education in Arizona University.
  • Turner, P., & Durrett, M. (1975). Teacher Level of Questioning and Problem Solving in Young Chıldren. Washington: American Educational Research Association, ERIC Education Resources Information Center.
  • Philosophy (Doctoral Thesis), Department of Teaching and Teacher Education in Arizona University.
  • Tsung-Hui, T., & Wei-Ying, W. (2008). Preschool teacher-child verbal ınteractions in science teaching. Electronic Journal of Science Education, 12(2), 2-23.
  • Van Boven, L. (2005). Experientialism, Materialism, and the Pursuit of Happiness. Review of General Psychology, 9(2).
  • van Kleeck, A., Vander Woude, J., & Hammet, L. (2006). Fostering literal and inferential language skills in Head Start preschoolers with language impairment using scripted book-sharing discussions. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15(1), 85-95.
  • van de Pol, J., Volman, M., Oort, F., & Beushuizen, J. (2015). The effects of scaffolding in the classroom: support contingency and student independent working time in relation to student achievement, task effort and appreciation of support. Instructional Science, 43(5).
  • van der Veen , C., Van Kruistum, C., & Micheals, S. (2015). Productive classroom dialogue as an activity of shared thinking and communicating: a Commentary on Marsal. Mind, Cultureand and Activity, 22(4), 320-325.
  • Van Zee, E., & Minstrell, J. (1997b). Using questioning to guide student thinking. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6, 229-271.
  • Vogler, J. (2005). Improve your verbal questioning. The Clearing House, 2, 98-103.
  • Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society; The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society; The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Vygotsky, L. (1987). Imagination and its development in childhood. The collected works of LS Vygotsky, 1, 339-350.
  • Wells, G. (1993). Reevaluating the IRF Sequence: A Proposal for the Articulation of Theories of Activity and Discourse for the Analysis of Teaching and Learning in the Classroom. Linguistics and Education, 5(1), 1-37.
  • Wells, G., & Arauz, R. (2006). Dialogue in the Classroom. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(3), 379-428.
  • Wilen, W. (1991). Questioning Skills, for Teachers. What Research Says to the Teacher. Third Edition. Washington: National Education Association.
  • Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). The Role of Tutoring in Problem Solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 89-100.
  • Wragg, E., & Brown, G. (2001). Questioning in the Primary School (Successful Teaching). London: Routledge Falmer.
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Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education and Educational Research
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Kübra DEMİR (Primary Author)
İSTANBUL AYDIN ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2110-3012
Türkiye

Supporting Institution İstanbul Aydın Ünivertesi
Thanks Akademik desteğinden ötürü sayın Yılmaz Soysal hocama sonsuz teşekkürler.
Publication Date June 30, 2021
Published in Issue Year 2021, Volume 5, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { aebd937166, journal = {Academy Journal of Educational Sciences}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-3342}, address = {akademiegitimbilimleri@gmail.com}, publisher = {Abdullah KALDIRIM}, year = {2021}, volume = {5}, pages = {27 - 44}, doi = {10.31805/acjes.937166}, title = {Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types}, key = {cite}, author = {Demir, Kübra} }
APA Demir, K. (2021). Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types . Academy Journal of Educational Sciences , 5 (1) , 27-44 . DOI: 10.31805/acjes.937166
MLA Demir, K. "Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types" . Academy Journal of Educational Sciences 5 (2021 ): 27-44 <http://journal.acjes.com/en/pub/issue/63588/937166>
Chicago Demir, K. "Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types". Academy Journal of Educational Sciences 5 (2021 ): 27-44
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types AU - Kübra Demir Y1 - 2021 PY - 2021 N1 - doi: 10.31805/acjes.937166 DO - 10.31805/acjes.937166 T2 - Academy Journal of Educational Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 27 EP - 44 VL - 5 IS - 1 SN - -2602-3342 M3 - doi: 10.31805/acjes.937166 UR - https://doi.org/10.31805/acjes.937166 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Academy Journal of Educational Sciences Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types %A Kübra Demir %T Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types %D 2021 %J Academy Journal of Educational Sciences %P -2602-3342 %V 5 %N 1 %R doi: 10.31805/acjes.937166 %U 10.31805/acjes.937166
ISNAD Demir, Kübra . "Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types". Academy Journal of Educational Sciences 5 / 1 (June 2021): 27-44 . https://doi.org/10.31805/acjes.937166
AMA Demir K. Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types. ACJES. 2021; 5(1): 27-44.
Vancouver Demir K. Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types. Academy Journal of Educational Sciences. 2021; 5(1): 27-44.
IEEE K. Demir , "Investigation of Preeschool Teachers' Questions' Types", Academy Journal of Educational Sciences, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 27-44, Jun. 2021, doi:10.31805/acjes.937166